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中英文 adjective 形容词  

2017-01-10 17:43:56|  分类: grammar 语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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When speaking, Adjectives and adverbs give colour to what we are saying. Adjectives describe nouns or pronouns and adverbs describe or modify the verb.

go 不及物动词,如果加宾语,先加介词,比如 we can go to the hospital.

She is going to go abroad tomorrow.  这句是 主语 + be going to go 谓语 abroad 副词(状)tomorrow 副词。   go 只能做不及物动词,不及物动词是不能直接跟宾语的,不及物动词要跟宾语,中间必须加介词来形成一个介词宾语。For example: We must arrive at school.must 是情态动词,arrive 是胃语动词。 must arrive 复合胃语.arrive 是不及物动词,加介词 at 在加宾语 school.

Jane always goes abroad in the summe holidays. Jane 主语   always 频率副词, goes 不及物动词,abroad 是状语,也是副词,方位副词,in the summe holidays 是介词短语,时间状语.

     形容词的使用。

    形容词通常是放在名词前面,但也有时放在名词后面,做宾语补足语

    形容词的次序为:尺寸-温度-年龄-外形-颜色-民族-材料-类型

we must guarantee to find that device intact

我们必须保证找到设备的时候是完好的。Device宾语   intact 形容词

   这就是典形的宾语补足语,形容词置后,对宾语进一步补充说明。

   we don't request getting the information.

getting 就是动名词,它本身是动词,但做 request 的宾语,有名词的作用。

我们不要求获得信息。getting 为 request 的宾语,the information 补语。

补充说明部分是宾语补足语,简称宾补。强调时间,地点,程度等部分是状语,它是用来壮大一个句子的,让整个句子更长,有更多的细节。

表语表示一种状态,身份等。定语就是给一个对象“定性”的成份,

For example: I am an old woman. I 是主语    am 系动词    an限定词    an old 定语     woman 表语。

She looks very young.  She主语    looks 谓语    very 形容词(状语)   young 宾语。

There is 1/3students in your class. They are Swedishes.

There be 结构    1/3定语     students 表语     your class状语      they 主语       are 系动词     Swedishes 表语

1、限定词

限定词位于各类形容词之首。它本身分为三位:前位、中位和后位

①前位限定词all, half, both, such分数和倍数。

②中位限定词:有冠词,指示代词,形容词性物主代词,名词所有格和不定限定词等,以及wh-起首的限定词[what(ever), which(ever), whose等]。

③后位限定词:有基数词和序数词,表数量代词,own,last等。序数词在前,基数词在后

基数词是 one two three ....

数词是 1 2 3....

序数词是 1st  2nd  3rd.....

基数词和数词在口语上相同,在写作上不同。

指示限定词this,that,these,those,such. 
关系限定词whose,which. 
疑问限定词what,which,whose. 
不定限定词no,some,any,each,every,enough,either,neither,all,both,half,several,many,much,(a) few,(a) little,other,another.

表数量的代词 many, more, most, few, fewer, fewest, little, less, least 

比如, I wanna buy two understandable biological books.

two 是表数量,放在首位

biological是最重要的,指明一定是要有关生物的,放在books旁边

understandable 做为一种付加条件,不是最重要的,但是可以做为参考的放在中间。

最简单的公式:

(数量)+(轻—重形容词)+名词

I haven’t seen the vase before. The 冠词

I like this pretty car.  This 冠词

2、描绘类

描绘类形容词表示事物的性质及人们的观点,先短词后长词。如:cold, great, bad, beautiful kind, fine, interesting, good等。例如

I haven’t seen such a beautiful vase before.

I like the first two pretty cars.

3、形状类

形状类形容词表示大小、长短、高低(矮)、外形、干湿度等。如:large, big, small, little, long, short, low, round, wet, dry等。例如:

I haven’t seen such a beautiful big vase before.

I like the first two pretty small cars.

4、时间类

时间类形容词表示年龄,长幼、时代,新旧、气候,温度等。如:new, old, hot, new, little, old, young, cool, wet, dry等。例如:

I haven’t seen such a beautiful big round old vase before.

I like the first two pretty small square new cars.

5. 颜色类

表示颜色的形容词有:brown, white, blue, black, pink, orange, grey等。例如:

I haven’t seen such a beautiful big round old white vase before.

I like the first two pretty small square new yellow cars.

6. 出处类

出处类形容词表示国籍、地区、出处,产地、来源等。如:Chinese, Australia, German, Asian等。例如:

I haven’t seen such a beautiful big round old white Chinese vase before.

I like the first two pretty small square new yellow Japanese cars.

7. 材料类

材料类形容词表示物质、材料,质地等。如:wooden, stone, silk, golden, steel等。例如:

I haven’t seen such a beautiful big round old white Chinese wooden vase before.

I like the first two pretty small square new yellow Japanese sports cars.

8. 用途类

用途类形容词表示作用、类别。如:medical, writing, police等。例如:

This is a a large famous medical school.

I like the valuable old Japanese writing desk

9、作定语的名词、动名词。如:boy, girl, man, woman等。

注:在实际运用中须注意:

1. 如两个以上相同种类的形容词同时修饰一个中心词时,其间可用连词and或but连接,或用逗号分开。如:a yellow, black sports car

2. 如要强调某一种类的形容词时,可将所强调的形容词后移,同时用逗号分开。如:a tall, dark, handsome cowboy

3、次序大致,但不绝对。如:Those three beautiful large square old brown wood table, a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella, the man’s first tow interesting little red French oil paintings.

4. 实际上很少出现按上述一至九条规则组合全的名词性词组,因为太累赘。但“无规矩不成方圆”,规则还是规则,规则必须掌握。

下面这首口诀可能便于记忆:

限定描绘大长高;形状年龄和新老;颜色国籍跟材料;作用类别往后靠。


   

I、请按正确的顺序重新安排下列修饰语:

1. All those smart brown snakeskin (brown, those, all, snakeskin, smart) shoes

2. All the sour green (the, all, green, sour) apples

3. Large antique brown and white German (German, brown and white, large, antique) beer-mugs

4. Her small round pink (round, small, pink) face

5. Louise's famous long blue evening(evening, long, blue, famous) gown

6. a very valuable old gold ( old, valuable, gold) watch

7. a(n) expensive steel and nylon tennis (tennis, steel and nylon, expensive) racket

8. a small, shiny, blank, leather  (black, shiny, small, leather) handbag

9. Several large red pickling (red, pickling, large) cabbages

10. a pretty purple silk (purple, pretty, silk) dress

II. 请根据形容词排列规则完成以下练习:

1. She has a beautiful brown leather jacket.(leather,brown,beautiful)

2. He has a long red American car. (American,long,red)

3. They live in a beautiful old house. (old, beautiful)

4. We have a small antique wooden table.(antique, small, wooden)

5. He has a lovely red woollen jumper. (woollen, lovely, red)

6. She has a fabulous new diamond ring. (diamond, new, fabulous)

7. It was a lovely old French song.(French,old, lovely)

8. He owns a horrible big black dog.(black, horrible, big)

9. She bought a gorgeous pink silk scarf.(gorgeous, silk, pink)

10. I saw a fantastic new British film. (new, fantastic,British)

 

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