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2014.08.29 The Ebola outbreak  

2014-08-29 16:16:22|  分类: listening articl |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Hello, I am Rob. Welcome to six minute English. I am joined today by Feifei. Hello Feifei.  Hello, Rob. Today we're talking about  quite a controversial subject: the use of experimental drugs to treat disease. And as always,  you'll  learn some vocabulary-so you can talk about the topic, too.  Experimental drugs are medicines  which are still being tested-They haven't yet been officially approved. And experimental drugs are a very hot topic with recent cases of the Ebola in West Africa. Ebola is caused by a virus for which there is no cure yet, and Mortality Rate is high. The Mortality Rate is the proportion of people in a Particular Group,  who actually die of the disease. Hundreds of people have been infected in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone and over-half have died. So- the World Health Organization decided to allow the use of experimental drugs on people with the virus. This is something very risky, The drug might cause unexpected changes in the body and make the patient worse. These are what we call side-effects. But before we talk any more about experimental drugs, let's go for our usual question. So Feifei. How much do you know about the Ebola virus? I am afraid I don't  know very much. But I have been following it on the news. OK, well, mayby you'll have to have a guess on this question. The virus Ebola got its name after a river, in the northern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. But when was it discovered?  Was it in a) :1966, b) :1976 or c): 1986.  Well, I am not  really sure but I'm gonna go with answer ( b) 1976. Well, We'll have the answer at the end of the programme. Now let's get back to our topic-experimental drugs. The World Health Organization, the WHO announced they would allow the use of these drugs on humans , but only under certain conditions , What are the conditions? Well, with the answer is Dr. Marie-Paul Kieny. who works for the WHO. Which word does she use to mean a patient gives  permission for the drug to be used. Transparency about all aspects of care, informed consent. freedom of choice, confidentiality, respect for person and preservation of dignity, and with the involvement of community. The word for permission was 'consent'. and 'informed consent ' was one of the conditions. 'Informed consent' means permission given by the patient after they've been told of the risks of using the drug,  I wonder what would happen if it didn't work or if the patient had a bad reaction . might they sue the doctor?  But, that is a very interesting point. The Health Minister of Liberia, Walter Gwenigale has already said that people won't be allowed to sue if the drug doesn't work, or if it makes them worse. Listen to what he says now and see  if you can identify the word  he uses to mean being 'legally responsible' for something. We are not just going to take them and start using them. It's an experimental drug, so people have to sign a waiver and ask us to give it to them, because it is not just like a drug that is for general use.  if you want us to try the drug on you,  you have to say that we are not liable for anything that happens to you as a consequence of receiving the drug. Wow, he is very direct. Neither the government nor the doctors are liable. that's the word which means legally responsible. if something bad happens to you. And  that's why if you are infected with the virus,  you have to sign a waiver,  A waiver, this is a formal document in which the person says they've given up a right or claim. . in this case, the right to take others to court. Yes , that is right. So people who are infected with Ebola can talk to a doctor sign this  document-this waiver- and get the medicine? Well,, not exactly. because not everyone gets it . And why is that? Well, it is still experimental. and not much of it has been produced. So that might not be enough for all who need it. So do you give it sickest who are likely to die, or to those not so sick who might recover with the help of the drug? it is a big dilemma, A dilemma is a situation in which a choice has to be made between different things. And one is not much better than the other. Quite a dilemma indeed. Now let 's get back to our quiz. I asked you when the Ebola Virus discovered. Was it in1966, 1976 or 1986? And I said 1976. You were indeed right. it was discovered in 1976, Interestingly, we don't really  know which animal carries the Ebola virus, although bats have long been suspected, and this makes prevention and controlling Ebole quite difficult .Okay, we're almost at the end of the programs, so let's recall some of the words that we've used today. we heard experimental drugs, mortality rate, side-effects , consent, waiver , Liable , dilemma.  Thanks Feifei. Welll, that's it for this programme. Please join us again soon for another six minute English from BBC learning English. Both: Bye.

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